《红楼梦》中的习语英译比较

学习啦  美婷   2020-03-23 11:30:26

  我们国的四大名著,我们大家有看完吗?接下来,小编给大家准备了《红楼梦》中的习语英译比较,欢迎大家参考与借鉴。

  《红楼梦》中的习语英译比较

  一、成语

  例1、黛玉纳罕道:“这些人个个皆敛声屏气,恭肃严整如此,这来者系谁,这样放诞无礼?”

  霍译:“Everyone else around here seems to go about with bated breath”, thought Dai-yu. “Who can this new arrival be who is so brash and unmannerly?”

  杨译:Daiyu thought with surprise, “ The people here are so respectful and solemn, they all seem to be holding their breath. Who can this be, so boisterous and pert?”

  解析:“敛声屏气”原意是抑制呼吸和声音,文中指贾府的人在贾母面前谨慎小心的样子;粢胗“with bated breath”,杨译用“hold one’s peace”,虽然二者使用了不同的英语习语,但其意义和用法与“敛声屏气”十分吻合。

  例2、宝玉听了,如醍醐灌顶。

  霍译:The scriptures tell us that the revelation of the Buddha - truth comes “ like ghee poured upon the head”. Bao-yu must have had some such feeling as he listened to.

  杨译: Baoyu felt as if Buddha had suddenly shown him the light.

  解析:“醍醐灌顶”是一个具有宗教色彩的成语,比喻听了高明的意见使人受到很大启发;粢氚姹窘胁钩浣馐,而杨译版本简洁明了,但都增加了“Buddha”一词凸显了本词所具有的宗教色彩。

  二、谚语

  谚语是对各种生活现象进行综合概括并在群众中广泛流传运用的语言。谚语大多是人生经验,用浅显直白的话反映出深刻的道理。

  例3、贾母笑道:“这正是‘巧媳妇做不出没米的粥’来”。

  霍译:“Even the cleverest housewife can’t make rice-gruel without rice.”Grandmother Jia quoted the proverb amidst general laughter.

  杨译:The old lady chortled, “ As the proverb says : ‘ Even a clever wife can’t make congee without rice.’”

  解析:原本的“巧媳妇做不出没米的粥”即“巧妇难为无米之炊”是典型的中国谚语,指如果缺少必要条件,事情很难做成。两种译文都通过直译的方式将原句的比喻意生动描述出,译文读者也易于接受。且译文都使用“proverb”, 标注出此句为谚语,有助于译文读者的理解。

  例4、宝玉听了,忙上来悄悄地说道:“你这么个明白人,难道连‘亲不间疏,先不僭后’也不知道?”

  霍译:“Old friends are best friends and close kin are kindest”, said Bao-yu, coming over to where she sat and speaking very quietly.

  杨译:Baoyu stopped to her side and said softly, “ Someone of your intelligence should know that distant relatives can’t come between close ones, and new friends can’t take the place of old”.

  解析:“亲不间疏,先不僭后”意思是亲近的人不疏远,非亲非故之人不能逾越了本分。言外之意就是亲疏有别,待遇不同。两种译文都译出了基本意思,但相比而言,霍译更加简洁明了,使用and连接两个简单的分句,还原了原文谚语短小精炼的特点。

  三、歇后语

  歇后语是一种特殊语言形式,一般由两个部分组成,前半截为形象的比喻,后半截对此做出说明解释,具有生动形象、诙谐幽默的特点。

  例5、凤姐道:“我哪里照管得这些事,见识又浅,口角又笨,心肠又直率,人家给个棒槌,我就认作针。”

  霍译:“I am not much of a manager really”, said Xi-feng. “ I haven’t got the knowledge, and I’m too poor at expressing myself and too simple-minded — always inclined to ‘ take a ramrod for a needle’, as they say”.

  杨译:“I’m incapable of running things”, she sighed. “ I’m too ignorant, blunt and tactless, always getting hold of the wrong end of the stick.”

  解析:“人家给个棒槌,我就认作针”是一条谐音双关的歇后语,“针”谐音“真”。这类歇后语,利用同音字或近音字相谐,由原来的意思引申出所需要的另一个意思,如“和尚撑伞——无发(法)无天”。要保证原文的结构特征和语义,只能意译,省去前半部分的比喻,译出后半部分的实际意思;粢胫币“针”,而没有体现此歇后语的真正含义,而杨译使用英语习语“get hold of the wrong end of the stick”意思为“误解、理解错误”。

  四、俗语

  例6、贾母笑道,“你不认得他,他是我们这里有名的泼皮破落户儿......”

  霍译:“You don’t know her,”said Grandmother Jia merrily. “ She’s a holy terror this one...”

  杨译:“You don’t know her yet.”The Lady Dowager chuckled. “She’s the terror of this house...”

  解析:“泼皮破落户儿”这一习语一指无赖,二指为人性格放纵,不拘小节。贾母在此无疑是对王熙凤的调侃,贬词褒用。两个译文都采用了“terror”,取“调皮鬼,机灵鬼”之意,恰到好处。

  习语翻译是中国文学中的一大亮点也是一大难点。译文若能很好地呈现习语的基础意思和比喻义,有助于译文读者在了解习语比喻义的基础上,也能了解汉语中独具特色的表达方式,激发他们的阅读兴趣。





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